The prevalence of epilepsy in Norway is estimated to 0.7 %. Approximately one third of the patients suffer from seizures affecting the temporal lobe, primarily in the form of focal seizure types. The temporal lobe is involved in important brain functions such as memory and language, which is reflected in the clinical presentation. It was previously believed that temporal lobe epilepsy was an acquired condition, however, recent research has demonstrated that genetic factors may play a significant role. The present review encompasses the principal aspects of temporal lobe epilepsy. It includes a discussion of treatment, and an overview of relevant features of brain anatomy and function; but the main focus is on symptoms and classification. While the symptoms depend primarily on the particular locus and the severity of seizures, the classification depends on additional factors related to inheritance (familiarity).