This thesis examines the provision of adult education for ex-combatants from illegal armed groups in Colombia as a governmental strategy to reduce their vulnerability and enhance their reintegration into civilian life. It does so through a comparative analysis of two local institutions, one providing non-formal adult education in the city of Medellín and the other formal adult education in the municipality of Piedecuesta. Guided by qualitative research design and methods and a human rights approach to education, it explores the views of the programme staff and officials as related to, in order to examine the provision of adult education in response to the needs of ex-combatants. Subsequently, perceptions of ex-combatants of their learning experience and its contributions to their reintegration are examined using Paulo Freire‟s concept of critical consciousness. The thesis has found that while both institutions make adult education available and accessible for all ex-combatants - fulfilling their right to education - one is set in a wider security strategy of the local government to prevent recidivism. As a result, many resources have been allocated which facilitates employment of qualified teachers, flexibility in scheduling and inclusion of other vulnerable adults. In contrast, the other programme is understood as an opportunity to reduce illiteracy rates, and is not understood within a specific frame of reintegration of ex-combatants. This affects the adaptability of formal education to the needs of ex-combatants, such as flexibility in scheduling. Fulfilling the right in and through education of ex-combatants is still a challenge in the two institutions. The accelerated learning pedagogy adopted by the non-formal adult education programme in Medellín seems to have a higher impact on ex-combatants‟ educational attainment than the one in Piedecuesta, although both institutions suffer from insufficient infrastructure, lack of materials and means to assist ex-combatants with special needs education. On their part, students suggest that their education is a tool to enhance their functionality in society and foster social mobility, increasing their participation in society and empowering them to formulate personal goals with the aim of improving their lives. This includes enabling them to liberate themselves from the problematic status of ex-combatant, and be assimilated as a civilian without experiencing prejudice. In this sense, the programme of non-formal adult education in Medellín reflects a more effective response to meet ex-combatants‟ needs for reintegration and reduce their vulnerability.