Background: Hemodialysis is a treatment usually given electively to patiens with chronic kidney failure. The aim of this study was to examine the use of hyperacute hemodialysis in the setting of the acute, severely ill patient. Materials and methods: Three different sources were used: A litterature search in Pubmed, three patient cases and a data collection by phone to examine the availability of hyperacute hemodialysis in Norwegian hospitals. Results: There were 89 articles included from Pubmed, where most (67) were case studies. They described the use of hyperacute hemodialysis on a number of conditions, like intoxications and metabolic disturbances. The patient cases described the use of hyperacute hemodialysis on an adverse effect of metformin and two cases of diabetic ketoacidosis. There were 27 hospitals in Norway where hyperacute hemodialysis could be administered, with a median time from arrival at the intensive care to the start-up with hemodialysis of 1 hour and 45 minutes. Conclusion: Hemodialysis can be used to treat a vast number of acute illnesses. It seems that the availability of the treatment in Norway is relatively good.