This study was carried out in Norway between the period of August and December 2012. The study is focused on communication between children with cochlear implants ( CI ) and their hearing parents. Parents of deaf children encounter a unique challenge to family unity. Since most of these parents are themselves hearing, they experience a feeling of being different from their child (Adams, 1997). As a result, most of these parents do not know how to communicate with them. With the advancement of cochlear implant technology, and earlier identification of deafness in children, the potential for intervention has changed a lot. However, it is important to understand that simply providing CI does not mean that a child will start to understand spoken language. There is an important distinction between the ability to hear sounds, and the understanding of speech. In bridging this distinction, parents have to help their child a lot, because they are the main people who can help them in language development. Parents need to learn how to develop their child s communication skills through meaningful everyday interactions with them. Qualitative research was chosen as an approach in this study. Using a qualitative research and case study design, this thesis describes the communication process between hearing parents and their cochlear implanted children. The study sheds light on how parents help their children to develop communication skills. Data was collected by means of observation, note taking, and interview. The data is mostly based on observations of the parent –child interaction. This thesis is organized into 5 chapters. I discussed in Chapter 1 the difficulties that parents face when learning that their child has a hearing disorder. They must make early decisions for treatment, and need to find the time to learn methods to communicate with their child. They must also manage their expectations, and learn the important distinction between hearing sound and understanding language. In the second chapter, I presented a literature review that covered useful and relevant research to my research problem. I described different types of hearing loss, and potential treatments. The three children I studied as a part of this thesis were all prelingually deaf, which means that they lost their hearing before they had learned to speak or understand a language. In chapter II, I also drew on theories from researchers such as Vygotsky, who suggests that early development and learning best takes place within the context of the child s cultural group, usually the family. Vygotsky places an emphasis on the child s interaction with others, and parent s role in facilitating language and communication development in the child. This theory forms the basis for the hypothesis that a child s success with cochlear implants heavily depends on their parent s efforts in helping them. Bruner similarly agrees with Vygotsky that a child learns language in interaction with adults, and parents should play an active role in assisting a child s learning. They both emphasise the social nature of learning, citing that parents should help children develop their language abilities through the process of scaffolding . I explain in Chapter 3 my research methods, explaining that the qualitative research method is most suited to this type of study. A qualitative research method enabled observation and interviews, whereby I could ascertain from the parents the methods they use to communicate with their cochlear implanted children, as well as their child s medical history and the parent s feelings and opinions on certain methods, and their reasons for choosing them. My sample was small due to the relatively rare nature of CI, and the difficulties in contacting potential recipients. I also had strict criterion that needed to be met. I followed every procedure in ensuring the recipient s confidentiality and informing them that they could withdraw at any time, and arranged interviews with the parents to gather relevant background information and to arrange a time and place for observations. This was extremely useful as these observations have formed the backbone of my thesis, and I managed to observe the parents in different situations and utilising different methods of communication and encouragement. Ethical considerations were also accommodated, and all the child s names were changed to protect confidentiality. In the fourth chapter, an actual analysis of my results was outlined, including several example conversations between the parents and their child, describing the communication strategies the family were using and its subsequent impacts. I provided a brief history and description of the three children, including their age of diagnosis and the age they had CI implanted. The conclusion is in chapter 5. My findings support the theories of Vygotsky and Bruner, as well as past research by Hart & Riley s, Spencer & Lederbergs and Warren & Walkers. Parents who listen to their child, follow their lead, actively engage and use positive feedback can have excellent communication with their children.