The thesis provides an in-depth discussion of technology transfer of innovations utilizing nanotechnology. Innovations that use nanotechnology as a component are controversial among governments, international organizations, NGOs, laypeople and the multinational corporation. Commercial barriers linked to nanotechnology include market acceptance and very high development costs. Nanotechnology start-ups may differ from established firms with respect to commercial strategy. Nanotechnology start-ups face similar challenges as most other firms that commercialize high-tech complex products.