This case study investigates the interface between traditional agricultural sugarcane production and modern renewable energies generation in 21st century Cuba, a command economy in transformation. In the previous century Cuba was a world leader in sugarcane production. What roles do policymaking and innovation processes play in developing this natural resource into renewable energy, potentially providing the country with both fuel and electricity? Qualitative data from interviews and documents obtained on a field trip to Cuba are used in this single case study. The theoretical framework of Techno-Economic Network is employed to describe the current state of sugarcane-based energy and to explain the governmental interventions. It is argued that sugarcane-based energy is affected by the decreasing agricultural sugarcane production. Further it is found that energy production faces challenges in transforming from research into useful products due to obstacles within implementation of the technology and lack of connections to the consumers. Cuba's main policy and strategic objectives focus on independence, including control over resources combined with sustainable development. Paradoxically current policies aimed at sugarcane-based energy are found to be limited. This research argues that current governmental policies are largely segregated, with the sugar production industry on one side and renewable energy on the other.