This study addresses access and parental choice in ECCE in Madagascar. The purpose of the study is to explore the value of ECCE and the factors obstructing access to ECCE, to examine the similarities and differences of the parental choice between public and private preschools in Madagascar and finally, to suggest the measures or strategies improving access to ECCE in the countries with low resource. Social exclusion, social class and school choice within rational action theory and Bourdieu s cultural capital was used as a theoretical framework. Madagascar was chosen as the site of research since it offers an opportunity to explore the situation of access and parental choice in ECCE in a low-resource context and to investigate the impact of political and economic crisis on access to ECCE and parental choice. The study is designed by a comparative research. Key stakeholders the central and local government officials and a representative of an international organization and civil society, teachers and parents participated in this study. All participants were compared in terms of the value of ECCE and the factors obstructing access to ECCE, the similarities and differences of parental choice between public and private preschool and the measures or strategies improving access to ECCE. Particularly, two parent groups (public and private preschool parents) were selected since it is useful to illuminate the similarities and differences of parental choice in the situation where private preschool that charges much more tuition fees than public preschools and use French as a language of instruction, dominates in Madagascar. The study shows the four major findings. Key stakeholders, first and foremost, valued ECCE as school readiness and an investment in the future of young children. Secondly, the factors obstructing ECCE were poverty and low commitment on ECCE of the country. Thirdly, in terms of similarities and differences of parental choice between public and private preschool parents, both parent groups made a rational choice as the extent to which parents invest in their children. Public preschool parents chose preschool due to the cheaper cost and on the other hand, private preschool ones made a decision on account of the acquisition of cultural capital, French. Finally, key stakeholders suggested the measures or strategies improving access to ECCE, moderate and radical changes. The government officials and a representative of international organization gave an emphasis on the moderate changes in policy that implicates the introduction of ECCE related law and the promotion of ECCE. On the contrary, parents and a key representative of civil society suggested on radical changes at the policy level such as equitable ECCE policies, including free education and the expansion and quality improvement of public preschools.