This study looks at the impact of non-traditional crops on farmers income focusing on the cultivation of birds-eye chili in two rural communities in Ghana. The two communities selected for this study both display the emerging characteristics of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa who are gradually shifting from attempting to raise yields of current crops to the cultivation of new, high value export crops in order to accrue higher incomes. A qualitative research method was employed to understand the factors that influence farmers to shift to the cultivation of birds-eye chili, the problems that are encountered in this new activity and most importantly the effect this has on their incomes. Elements of the popular sustainable livelihoods framework were adopted for analysing the impacts. The study revealed a number of issues relevant to the discourse on improving incomes of smallholders. The study confirmed the shift of some smallholders to cultivation of new, high value export crops such as birds-eye chili. Again the study provided evidence of a unique brand of farming known as block farming in one of the two communities and how this is contributing to higher incomes compared to traditional methods of farming. Challenges that are faced by birds-eye chili farmers were also identified and the extents to which these challenges impact incomes accrued from the activity were explored as well. The findings of the study point to the fact that birds-eye chili cultivation delivers higher and more stable incomes to the farmers especially for farmers on the block farms. Relying on evidence from the study, a number of recommendations were made regarding opportunities for future studies as well as for shaping future policies.