This thesis aims to study the role of civil society organizations (CSOs) in industrial zones (IZs) in Vietnam, specifically, why and how CSOs engage in addressing human rights in foreign-invested companies in IZs. As to the question why , the research analyzes the necessity of CSOs engagement in human rights issues in IZs by discussing the failure of the state duty and corporate responsibility to protect, respect and remedy human rights. The failures demonstrate a number of human rights violations including labor rights within workplaces and the rights of surrounding communities. In order to answer the question how , it then delves into the strategies and mechanisms that CSOs may employ. The study also provides three case studies of a Vietnamese NGO - Center for Development and Integration, Fair Labor Association and domestic CSOs in the Vedan case in order to examine the role of CSOs in practice. This research is based on observations, interviews with representatives of IZs Authorities in nine cities and provinces in Vietnam with high density of IZs, representatives of CSOs, journalists, and literature.