As Uganda is about to start exploiting its petroleum reservoirs, it is apparent that there is a genuine fear of it becoming the next country on the list of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa suffering from a resource curse . Many arrows are pointing in the wrong direction when it comes to democratization and civil liberties. Still, the Norwegian petroleum aid program Oil for Development (OfD) has just recently been re-started in the country after having been frozen for some months due to a grand corruption scandal at the Ugandan Prime Minister s office, where about 30 million Norwegian kroner of aid intended for rehabilitation of northern Uganda disappeared. This thesis analyses the political condition in present Uganda, just a few years after it was regarded as an exemplary case of progressive development in Sub-Saharan Africa during the period that has been referred to as the third wave of democratisation. Uganda is in the process of venturing into oil and gas activities in the pristine Albertine Valley. On the basis of the extensive literature on political transformation and resource- management/curses, this thesis analyses Uganda s political conditions for resource management and researches whether and how Oil for Development can benefit Uganda and other developing countries with similar opportunities and challenges.