This thesis focuses on men, in a search for the root causes of gender inequality, gender based violence and HIV in South Africa. I argue that it is time to move beyond the victimization of women and start politicizing masculinities. In addition to the focus on women s power and agency, we must understand the relations between women, men and structures of economy, politics, culture and so on. Masculinities have increasingly become a research focus in attempting to help men to understand and control their aggressive tendencies toward women. Even though these are important steps forward, this illustrates that the debate has been informed by the stereotype that women are vulnerable and men are aggressive, rather than the underlying causes for these roles. I argue, that gender issues are relational, vulnerability is contextual and even in difficult or poor circumstances people have opportunities to choose change. So, on the one hand, issues of violence and HIV must be politicized rather than individualized and, on the other hand, this should include masculinity and not remain a feminist agenda. Men in all their variety and complexity are almost invisible in these discourses, reduced to being represented as the problem. However, there are indeed options for masculine identity, HIV-prevention and non-violence to concur. This thesis presents a bottom-up understanding of the context in Cape Town s townships and explores how Sonke Gender Justice Network contributes to politicizing the otherwise depoliticized discourse on masculinities. They do this by utilizing principles of agency instead of empowerment and creating policies on social justice, gender justice and involvement of men. Stories from my informants will reveal how the One Man Can campaign works with gender justice within the complex context of participants lives and thus make them a tool for the endeavor of ending violence and HIV. Sonke invites men to share their own experiences, build peer leaders and provide alternative masculinities based on experience and local knowledge. In addition they manage to speak to academics and other NGOs due to their holistic approach (using the Sonke Spectrum of Change) where experiences from communities inform research and advocacy.