Concerning the dilemma of whether or not to withhold antibiotics, it is clear that there are many factors that must be taken into consideration. The aim of this article is to identify and address these factors. The issues discussed are done so in light of different ethical theories, as well as the current law regulating patients rights and physicians obligations. This article focuses especially on how to weigh the demands and needs of the individual patient against future patients rights to receive adequate antibiotic treatment. There are no wrong or right answers to many of the questions asked in this article, though it becomes evident that too great an emphasis on the present and a disregard of the future, may prove too costly for society. A restrictive attitude towards administration of antibiotics is imperative in preventing further resistance. Therefore, individual sacrifices may be necessary in order to save future patients. Another dilemma that is debated in this article, is what influences decisions concerning whether or not to administer antibiotics to elderly, ill patients, especially those suffering from dementia, and how beneficial antibiotics are in the given situations with regards to survival and comfort. There are a number of elements that influence a physician s decision to give a patient antibiotics, such as the patient s, the relatives and the physician s own attitudes towards antibiotics given in the final stages of life, and the general attitude towards antibiotics in the region. Although research in this field is lacking, the few studies that do exist suggest that in elderly patients with advanced dementia, antibiotic treatment has little or no impact on survival. It can therefore be argued that antibiotics should be withheld in these patients.