In 2008 Tanzania was selected to be amongst the countries that would be implementing the REDD Project in its piloting phase as a way of demonstrating how the future REDD would look like. It was selected because of the existence of participatory institutional setup as well as the presence of the big tropical forest cover. Currently, there are nine REDD+ pilot projects implemented in Tanzania, which are also financed by the Norwegian Government through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The purpose of this study was to examine the roles ascribed to villagers and how villagers perceived the ascribed roles in one of the REDD+ pilot projects implemented in the Kolo Hills forests in Kondoa District, Dodoma, Tanzania. The study was guided by three research questions namely: What are the roles that AWF and donors expect villagers to take in the pilot project for REDD at Kolo hills? The second was To what extent do the villagers agree to and comply with the roles assigned to them in the REDD pilot project? and the third was How do issues of available role compliance can be explained? The study largely employed a qualitative approach as well as some elements of quantitative research approach. A sample size of 95 respondents from 11 villages in the Kolo Hills as well as some key official from REDD+ project was selected using both purposive and non-purposive sampling techniques. The sample had 51 males and 44 females. The data gathered in this study were transcribed verbatim coded, and analyzed qualitatively according to their content, themes and patterns that emerged. I found that there were differences on how the REDD+ pilot project was perceived in the Kolo Hills and therefore there were differences in how its roles were conformed and taken up by villagers. This study found out different groups in the compliance aspect. There were the REDD+-Ready, REDD+-Negative, and the REDD+-Ready-but disappointed villagers. The reason behind the varied compliance levels is explained by various factors including improper application of Free and Prior Informed Consent (FPIC), delay of the project-side to fulfill the project benefits and promises and so unable to meet villagers expectations. In light of the research findings and conclusions, several recommendations were advanced. One of the several recommendations that I advance is that REDD+ should emphasize communicating the Project especially on the aim, goals and the benefits for more awareness among the villagers who are not willing to comply with the ascribed roles so as to create a more understanding of the Project and its processes, improve and increase the incentives to villages participating so as to attract their participation, and to find ways of integrating the Government into the Project so as to win the villagers trust in the Project for their full participation in the roles ascribed. Further, it recommends for a designed donor intervention to ensure the fulfillment of the promises made during the launching of the project so as to maintain the reputation and credibility of the project to villagers.