Congenital scoliosis is a rare disease caused by a vertebral anomaly. The defect occurs during embryological development of the spine, between the first 20 to 30 days of gestation. Other organs, such as the heart, ribs, genitourinary system or spinal cord, develop at the same time as the spine. Embryological defects may also affect these organs. The severity and the rate of deterioration of the scoliotic curve depend on the type and the site of the curvature.
Thoracic volume deformity due to congenital scoliosis and rib fusion can lead to thoracic insufficiency syndrome and result in respiratory failure. Surgery is the main therapeutic option for scoliosis in an attempt to correct the curvature. There are many different types of surgical procedures, however only expansion thoracoplasty and vertical expandable prosthetic titanium ribs (VEPT) treat TIS directly.