Objective: This paper investigates the relationship between alliance, therapist orienting the patient to affect, and outcome, as indicated by sense of self, in two treatments, cognitive therapy (CT) and short term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP), for patients diagnosed with cluster C personality disorder. We hypothesized that: 1) therapist orienting for affect will predict sense of self in the following session, 2) alliance will predict the development of sense of self in the following session, and 3) the interaction of therapist orienting for affect and the alliance will predict sense of self in the following session. Method: Forty-six cases (23 CT and 23 STDP) were assessed using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS) and the Psychotherapy Process Q-sort (PQS), which provided measures on alliance, therapist affect orientation and sense of self from session to session for all cases. Multilevel models were employed to explore the hypotheses of this study on the within-person level of effects. Results: There were no main effects on the within-person level of therapist orienting for affect and alliance on predicting sense of self. However, a significant interaction effect was found on the within-person level between alliance and therapist actions on predicting sense of self. Conclusions: This study indicates that orienting the patient to affect should be done in parallel to ensuring a sound alliance. This may have clinically relevant implications by offering directions for the timing of interventions aimed at orienting the patient to affect.