Opioidtreatment for acute pain. Risk of addiction?
Aim: To asses the risk of addiction after treatment of acute pain with opioid analgesics in hospital care.
Methods: PubMed were searched from January 2011 to September 2012. Systematic reviews and primary studies were included if the articles reported data about inpatients with acute pain treated with opioid analgesics and development of dependence or addiction. Articles about outpatient prescription drug abuse, chronic or malignant pain, patients with history of drug abuse or pediatric patients were not considered.
Results: Of 738 articles, seven articles were included in this review. The studies included two systematic reviews, three case reports and two cohort studies. The results were very heterogenous due to different study methods. None of the articles were able to report information on incidence, prevalence or the risk of iatrogenic addiction development from opioid analgesics given to hospitalized patients for acute pain.
Conclusion: This search showed that there is minimal litterature on iatrogenic opioid addiction and acute pain, and the few studies that could be retrieved from the search is for most parts of low methodological quality. This litterature review could not answer the study question and the addiction risk from opioid treatment for acute pain is still unknown, due to the abscence of reliable data.