Cesarean section (CS) is a surgical procedure used to deliver one or more babies. CS is usually performed when vaginal delivery will put the mother or child’s health or life at risk. In recent years, the number of CS has risen worldwide. Since CS also involves risk for adverse outcome for both mother and child, concern has been expressed regarding its increased use.The main aim of this study was to investigate indications used for CS in St. Joseph Medical Hospital in Moshi, Tanzania. The study involves a review of the hospital records of women who previously had undergone CS in the period 2009-2011.All together 212 CS were reviewed.The prevalence of CS at St. Joseph Medical Hospital was 18%. The most common indication overall for CS was prolonged or obstructed labour, it counted for 30 %. The indications were different for nulliparous and multiparous women, the most common indication among nulliparous was prolonged or obstructed labour, and the most common indication for multiparous women was previous CS.Malpresentation of the baby (20%), and fetal distress (11%), were also commonly used as indications.
Similar studies have been, or are being, conducted in other countries worldwide. Thus, the results will not only elucidate possible indications for cesarean section in the Moshi region, but also contribute to an overall comparison of indications for cesarean section in these countries. Comparison of international differences in indications for cesarean section is of importance to explain the increased prevalence of the procedure.