Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common form of diabetes mellitus (DM) among children/adolescents under the age of 15 years. This was also the situation at the pediatric ward at Tygerberg Hospital (TH) in South Africa (SA) and at Stavanger University Hospital (SUH) in Norway. The incidence of T1D among children/adolescents is increasing in Norway, as well as in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). If T1D is not adequately treated the patients might die of either acute- or long-term complications. Therefore it is important to work for better diabetes care in countries in e.g. SSA.Aims: The aims of this thesis were to compare diabetes care at TH in SA to diabetes care in SSA/Africa in general, and to another public hospital, SUH in Norway. Another aim was to assess if international consensus guidelines in diabetes care were followed at TH and SUH. Methods: A literature review on the guidelines of the International Society for Pediatric Adolescents Diabetes (ISPAD), and about T1D in SA, in SSA in general, and in Norway was performed through a search for information on PubMed. Using a standardized questionnaire based on ISPAD`s guidelines diabetes care providers were interviewed at TH, and SUH. Results: In SSA countries patients with T1D often do not receive adequate health care. Due to various reasons it seem to be impossible to achieve the ISPAD`s recommendations for many health-institutions in SSA. Both TH and SUH were able to put into practice most of the ISPAD`s guidelines according to diagnostics, treatment, follow-up, treatment goals, as well as screening for complications/associated autoimmune diseases. Most of the patients at TH had DKA at the time of diagnosis, while 6 % of the patients at SUH were diagnosed with DKA. None of the patients at TH were on insulin pump, while 51 % were on this treatment regime at SUH. Around 9 % of the patients at TH achieved an HbA1c < 7.5 %, while approximately 33 % of the patients at SUH achieved the treatment goal. At TH, they seldom saw patients with severe hypoglycaemia, while 9 % of the patients at SUH developed this form of acute complication. Around 16.4 % of the patients at TH developed DKA after the time of diagnosis, while 3.5 % of the patients at SUH did the same. At SUH, one patient had developed nephropathy, and one patient received treatment for hypertension (HT), and hypercholesterolemia. Unfortunately it was not possible to receive information about long-term complications among the patients at TH. Conclusion: Diabetes care at TH in SA appeared to be well-functioning compared to the knowledge about diabetes care in SSA. Since patient data from TH for the year 2010 in total was partly missing, it was difficult to draw any firm conclusion about the quality of the diabetes care at TH compared to the diabetes care at SUH. However, based on the information received by interviewing health personnel at both places, most aspects of the diabetes care at TH were comparable to the diabetes care at SUH.