AbstractThis text is analyzing why the ABC-campaign, which promotes the risk-reducing behaviour of Abstinence, Faithfulness and Condomize, that apparently were responsible for Ugandas decline in HIV-prevalence in the 90s has not shown the same results in prevalence-decline in other contries. Ugandas decline was an exception and contrary to neighbouring countries it is likely to make a comparison with in regard to extent and maturity of the epidemic of HIV. By refering to a number a review articles- and primary studies the paper first describes how the campagin was run in Uganda in the 90s and then summarizing the results of surveys that show the decline in HIV-prevalence. Then I will refer to some of the argues against the successfullness of the ABC-campagin itself and also to factors the ABC-campaign don't take into account, that may be the reason why it is not as easy transferable to other countries as ancipitated. I am arguing that the social context the messages of Abstinence, Faithfullness and Condomize are promoted in is too complex and differs too much to be easily transfered from country to country and region to region. Local societies need specific adjustments in how the campagin is run and in its message, and it will not succeed until conditions specific to the society is taken into account when launching the campaign. In this paper I am also discussing framework in African societies that is challenging the assumptions of the campaign about the rational person that given the information about risk of transmission Then I am using the Health Belief Model to show that a rational choice a person not necessarily is a behaviour that will reduce his or hers risk of exposure to the HIV-virus.