This case study looks at how the Chinese wind turbine industry has grown from being almost non-existent ten years ago, to become the world’s largest today. In a country where electricity supply is predominately fuelled by coal, it is far from self-evident that the wind industry succeeds. Seeking to privilege analytical depth, this study looks at processes behind the industry development, scrutinising the involved actors, networks and institutions. The theoretical point of departure is the technological innovation systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on key processes behind emerging technologies—e.g. wind turbines. The framework allows for an assessment of both how the industry has grown, and the dynamics of the industry. It is argued that both local and global processes must be incorporated into the analysis in order to understand the growth of the industry, and ultimately—to understand how China’s electric power sector can transition from a “grey” to a “green” electricity supply.