South Sudan finally reached the status of being an independent country after having been in almost constant conflict with northern Sudan for the last half century. On the other hand, due to the protracted war, South Sudan is one of the least developed countries in the world. The challenges are daunting as the state of the country in all areas is destroyed and people remain one of the poorest in the world. Water is a basic human right and water management is crucial towards achieving human development and eradicating poverty. In this thesis, I have explored and analysed issues of water governance in this newly independent country in order to highlight and understand the challenges of water resources and relations between the different actors in the light of a human rights-based approach. This is relevant for gaining an understanding – especially with the government of South Sudan as a new actor with a mandate – of the challenges, aspects and factors in water governance as one of the essential mechanisms of achieving access to water for people in South Sudan.