The thesis herein examines some of the vital links between international humanitarian law and sustainable development. Although environments of war are seemingly paradoxical, the fact remains that the natural environment is a vital constituent toward the sustainable development aim. There are nearly a thousand treaties in peacetime aiming to establish limitations on the exploitation of the natural environment in order to combat global threats such as climatic change, transboundary pollution, toxic waste disposal, and other forms of environmental degradation. In contrast, however, the limitation on the destruction of the natural environment in the event of an armed conflict remains unclear. With a historical glimpse from the Stockholm Declaration to the birth and development of environmental law, in addition to a collective case study of wartime events, we shall undertake a critical assessment of international humanitarian law to determine the reason for this uncertainty. The Rio Declaration states that warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development. Based on evidence collected from these several cases, we will discuss a variety of warfare methods and means, from the use of poisons, to burning oil fields, and geophysical warfare tactics. Military activities are regarded as highly destructive to the natural environment. Wartime itself has given rise to the concept of ecocide and eco-criminal. Clearly as a grave threat toward the overall sustainable development aim, we shall look at the legal framework of international humanitarian law and test its ability to protect the natural environment. If it is not adequately protected, what are some notable weaknesses and how might it be strengthened in practice on the battlefield? For it is clear, that in order to fully realize the attainment of sustainable development, we must first untangle and understand what could destroy it, and ultimately, stand in the way to protect it.