The research problem focused on Deaf learners’ self esteem and perceived academic competences, the relationship between self esteem and perceived academic competence of Deaf learners in special schools triggered by the fact that Deaf learners in special schools in Uganda have had relatively low academic competences. The Cultural Nature of Human Development theory formed the basis of the present study was among the minority community (Deaf people) and therefore, issues of culture, practices and routines may have been a basis for the learners’ self esteem and A quantitative study survey 162 Deaf learners, 82 girls and 80 boys from primary six and primary seven out of 175 expected, in four Schools for the Deaf using a questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 14.0 for windows to test the internal consistency of the two standardized tools (Rosenberg 1965 Global self esteem, Gresham & Elliott 1990 academic competence), t-test and F-test (ONE-WAY ANOVA) and Spearman rho correlation coefficient were used to investigate the research question given in chapter one.The findings revealed that Deaf learners’ self esteem was relatively high with insignificant differences across various demographic characteristics of Deaf learners. Perceived academic competence of Deaf learners remained largely average with a significant number with relatively high perceived academic competence compared to the least number of Deaf learners with low perceived academic competence. Perceived academic competence varied significantly across some of the demographic variables. The relationship between self esteem and perceived academic competence of Deaf learners was significant with a relatively strong correlation. Across the demographic characteristics, the relationship remained relatively moderate. Based on the findings, the present study recommends the need to investigate other possible factors that may be responsible for low academic competence of Deaf learners in special schools. These may include among others teaching and learning strategies, academic assessment and curriculum design. Policy makers and teachers of the Deaf should take advantage of the high self esteem and perceived academic competence of Deaf learners modify their teaching methods, influence the national curriculum and the examination content to inclusively respond to Deaf learners’ cultural differences. Standardized instruments should be modified in response to cultural differences and experiences of the Deaf respondents. A combination of methods to supplement the quantitative data may give deeper understand into the Deaf respondent views and may limit misinterpretation of the research tool.