AbstractInteraction and communication between the teacher and the pupils in the classroom are basic processes in teaching and learning. Bearing this in mind the purpose of this study has been twofold:Firstly, to gather information about whether the eight themes for positive communication between teacher and pupils in the classroom, from the ICDP program, occur in a purposefully selected case elementary school in Sarajevo, and to collect as much and as varied examples as of such communication.Secondly, it was to investigate and describe how the teachers perceive and experience their pupils, how the teachers experience their abilities as a (competent) teacher, and how the teachers perceive their communication with the pupils in the classroom. The theoretical framework on which this study was based, consists of the theories emphasizing the role of social interaction in the child s learning and development, namely: Vygotsky s social-constructionist theory and Bruner s cognitive interactionist theory, and of the International Child Development Program (ICDP) which aims to bring out and sustain good quality interaction between the caregiver and the child, by applying the eight themes for positive communication. A qualitative approach, using a case study design was used to investigate and describe the targeted phenomenon in depth during the data analysis and discussion of findings. Observation and interview methods were used to collect data. The findings obtained confirmed that all of the eight themes for positive communication between teacher and pupils were manifested in the observed classrooms in many variations (that is 266 variations during 15 observed lessons). In communicating with the pupils, teachers attempted to help the pupils focus their attention and give praise and acknowledgement. Furthermore, findings revealed that the teachers have positive perception and experiences of each pupil in the classroom as a unique, individual person, with her/his own personality, abilities, wishes and needs, and that as such, each pupil deserves special approach and way of acting. This study has also found that the teachers are aware that their communication with the pupils in the classroom influences the pupils development and learning as well as that the main abilities which they consider important in their communication with the pupils in the classroom are: openness, sincerity, mutual listening and understanding, mutual reciprocity and balance. Recommendations were made concerning that the eight themes for positive communication and raising of teachers awareness of how important their communication with the pupils is for child s learning and development, should be the part of teacher s education and in-service training.