The main purpose of the study is to compare the systems of teacher training in Finland and Ukraine analyzing similarities and differences. The choice of the countries caused by the uniqueness of the cases is not accidental. The Finnish system of education is meant to be the best according to the international comparative studies. High quality of teacher training is one of the main factors of school efficiency in Finland. Ukrainian system of teacher training has a long tradition but now is in the process of reorganization following the new global trends and experiences of other states. Organization of teacher training in these two countries will contribute to understanding of variety of teacher education worldwide illustrating at the same time peculiarities of the concrete cases.The main criteria for analysis are organization of the process and content of teacher training, assumptions and expectations about ideal teachers, influence of the curriculum development on teacher training and status of the profession in Finnish and Ukrainian societies. Organization of the process of teacher education is seen as a constant development of teacher competence and is examined in the thesis according to the stages of professional training. Preparation and selection to the profession, initial teacher education, entrance to the pedagogical practices and in-service teacher training are the main lines of comparison.Content of teacher education consists of a complex of main areas of knowledge and skills essential for teacher competence: knowledge of learners and their development in social context; knowledge of subject matter and curriculum understanding; knowledge of teaching, pedagogy and didactics. The analysis gives evidence in which way the relevant subjects are included in curricula of these two countries.Assumptions about the ideal teachers give explanations of the goals and directions of teacher education and teacher training programs. Curriculum theory and change of curriculum traditions influence the role and duties of teachers both inside and outside the classroom. The comparison shows consequences of changes in curriculum philosophy for teachers in these two countries. Social status, as a reflection of general attitude to the profession, depicts real situation of teachers with its negative and positive sides.The findings show some definite differences and similarities between the cases. Common features are found in the organization of the process and content of teacher preparation in both cases. As for the duties, role and status of the profession, there are some crucial differences between the cases which evidence about more negative situation of the Ukrainian teachers in comparison to their Finnish colleagues.