Asperger syndrome has received increasing attention during the last decade. Even though individual differences exist, it is generally recognized that children with Asperger syndrome have extensive social deficiencies. Social difficulties are key factors for diagnosing this disorder. The aims of this study were to discuss social difficulties in children with Asperger syndrome and examine effective strategies to prevent social deficiencies and enhance social abilities. Based on this research, it is discussed how these children’s social difficulties arise from a combination of factors, which can be explained as features that directly, as well as indirectly, influence their social functioning. Factors that directly influence social deficiencies involve difficulties interacting with peers, deficiencies in interpreting social cues and socially and emotionally inappropriate behaviours. Further, characteristics that often accompany the condition, involving narrow interest patterns, stereotypic movements, difficulties concerning language, ritualistic routines, and motor clumsiness add to the social deficiencies in a more indirectly manner. These difficulties, combined with a generalized lack of social interaction explain why affected children have so extensive social deficiencies. Further, effective strategies to be used by parents, clinicians and teachers in order to provide these children with the necessary “tools” for successful social interaction are discussed. It is argued that the most successful interventions are found when the individual, family, school and clinic work together and coordinate in order to promote social abilities in the child. Due to the research field of Asperger syndrome being relatively new, further studies are needed in order to shed more light on social difficulties, as well as on effective methods regarding preventing social deficiencies and enhancing social abilities, in affected children.