This is a study to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among men in Ngara district Tanzania. The first objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of different contraceptive methods and the magnitude of contraceptive use among men. The second objective was to assess the level of contraceptive availability and reasons for using/not using contraceptive methods as well as the men's reproductive preferences. It is a cross-sectional study conducted in August-December 2000, including 275 men aged 15-59 years who were randomly selected from 18 villages. Men who had no sexual experience or were mentally ill and those who did not consent were excluded from the research. The data were collected using structured questionnaire, in addition focus group discussions were done and the association between different factors and contraception use was calculated. The male contraceptive prevalence was low (18%), with periodic abstinence as a common method in use (9%). The knowledge of male methods was limited. Though a majority of men has heard about condoms (96%), only 70% have seen one and a majorityreporting to have seen condoms only in packets during focus group discussions. Few men knew of vasectomy (48%), associating the method with "castration of animals". Desiring more children (25%), poor knowledge of male methods (20%) and difficulties in using the methods (10%) were the most frequent reasons given by non-users. Men desired a large family size and preferred boys rather than girls. Contraceptive approval among men was high and men believed to be the prime contraception discussion initiators in their families. We conclude that low knowledge and misconception about male methods, large desired family size may have been associated with low male contraceptive prevalence. Therefore, there is a need to find better ways to reach men especially in rural areas, to provideaccess to appropriate and adequate information regarding a range of family planning services.