From 20th century, the rapid population growth in developing countries has been viewed as a big problem in the international society. The rapid population growth may increase poverty and environmental stress. Ethiopia is one of the countries that have faced this challenge and the present government is trying to reduce the total fertility rate.The aim of this study was to investigate why there still are high fertility rates in rural Ethiopia. By the use of qualitative methods, the study sought to explore the variety of factors which may influence people’s perceptions and behaviour regarding decision making related to family planning. We conducted nine interviews with the villagers, eight interviews with health workers and six focus group discussions with the villagers.We found that there are changing perceptions as well as behavioural shifts in favour of contraceptive use and smaller family size, this because the concept of family planning seem to have been established among people. Furthermore, the accessibility of contraceptives has been improved as different types of contraceptives are now provided free of charge at the health post in the village. On the other hand, our findings suggest there are multiple and specific obstacles working against family planning. We identified five factors which influenced reproductive perceptions and behaviour; the value of having children, religion, gender norms, side effects due to contraceptives, and information and services from health workers. The study also suggests these elements are intricately related with one another.