ABSTRACT ¨C Malnutrition and associated risk factors in children aged 6-59 months in urban IndonesiaBackground There has been made substantial progress in Indonesia by reducing the magnitude of malnutrition during the last decades. However, great disparities exists among areas and malnutrition remains a significant public health problem in many parts of Indonesia. Our study will provide an understanding of risk factors in a specific population in Medan so that a local NGO and local policy makers can plan targeted and appropriate interventions. Objectives To identify the prevalence and associated risk factors of stunting, wasting and underweight in children aged 6-59 months in an urban community Indonesia, with a main emphasis on breastfeeding, complementary feeding and acute watery diarrhea. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey with a structured questionnaire conducted between August and December 2010 on 405 households. All households with children between 6-59 months were included in the survey. Anthropometric measurements were performed on one randomly selected child from each household. Nutritional status was determined according to the WHO new growth reference.Results The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting was 21.7% (95%CI¡À4.0) and 4.4% (95%CI¡À2.0). The prevalence of wasting and severe wasting was 12.6% (95%CI¡À3.2 ) and 2.7% (95%CI¡À1.6). The prevalence of underweight and severe underweight were 21.8% (95%CI¡À 4.0) and 3.5% (95%CI¡À1.8)Risk factor for stunting were: Consumption of ¡Ý4 snacks per day, increased feeding during diarrhea, ¡Ý5 children in the household, short maternal stature (<150cm)and LBW (<2500g). Protective factors for stunting were: Higher maternal education and knowledge about breastfeeding. Risk factors for wasting were: Consumption of carrot or yellow/orange fruit or vegetables within last 24h, age 6-23 months, treating acute watery diarrhea with traditional/herbal medicine and receiving vitamin A supplements within last 6 months. Protective factors for wasting were: Higher income (>$200) and washing children¡¯s hands before eating. Risk factors for underweight were: Short maternal stature (<150cm), LBW(<2500g) and receiving vitamin A supplements within last 6 months. Protective factors for underweight were: Higher paternal education and maternal knowledge about good complementary feeding.Conclusion We failed to identify any significant association between breastfeeding practices or acute watery diarrhea and malnutrition. However, some dietary practices were significantly associated with malnutrition.