Background: Social inequalities in health have over the last decades been documented in Europe and North America. These inequalities pose a major public health challenge. In Norway these inequalities are largest in the capital Oslo.Methods: A critical review of the current knowledge/existing literature on social inequalities in health in Norway’s capital Oslo. Included in the review are studies which use income, education or occupation as a socioeconomic variable. Included are also studies which look at contextual effects of place of residence on the social inequalities in health. The studies are discussed in relation to similar international studies.Results: The review shows that the social inequalities in health in Oslo are well documented and that they are large and in some respects expanding. The studies which have looked at possible explanations have mostly looked on the effects of exposure or socioeconomic class at different stages during the life course or at contextual effects. No studies which look at interventions were found.Conclusions: The social inequalities in health in Oslo are large. Despite higher research activity in the recent decade there is still a need for a larger effort to find the causal mechanisms and a more coordinated strategy to combat the inequalities. The establishment of an interdisciplinary center of expertise and topics to focus on in future research are suggested.