Background:The purpose of this thesis has been the circumcision according to cultural and medical perspectives, to discuss the ethical issues that can be in conflict with modern western values, human rights, religious rights and the problems that surface if it is abandoned by the authorities.
Male circumcision has long historical traditions. The earliest traditions have been revealed on stone tables in ancient Egypt 5000 years ago. Jewish people practice the tradition with legitimation through the holy Bible in the old testament. Prophet Abraham undergoes a pact with God to circumcise all jewish men. The muslims have a hadith as a religious legitimation for circumcision. Although there is no such imperative in the Quran. Most of the circumcised boys and men are in the Middle East, African and Asian countries.
There is substantial evidence proving male circumcision to be beneficial in preventing HIV and sexual transmitted diseases, however ethical disputes still seem to cause scepticism among many western nations, making the procedure controversial. Circumcision has been related to less sexual sensitivity and less comfort, more pain, necrosis and septical complications have been seen.
Both the American Paediatric Association and the Norwegian Medical Association condemns circumcision at the current time.
Conclusion: Thus, in my opinion, male circumcision remains a complicated practice due to tabooed and controversial attitudes. Regardless of medical findings which may tend to benefit resulting from the procedure , the only sensible medical aim must be to focus on the patients rights to chose, and given that these individuals usually are children we are faced with a difficult dilemma.