Background: Micturating cystourethrography (MCUG) is an examination of the urethra, bladder and kidneys. Congenital malformations and urinary tract infections are common in childhood. MCUG is therefore frequently done in children. The examination is known to be distressing for the child, parents and staff.
Objective: To find out which interventions that can make the examination less distressing for the child, and how Norwegian University Hospitals apply empirical knowledge in their MCUG-routines.
Materials and methods: The study is based on observations of MCUG-examination of six children aged 0-8 year, a literature search in MedLine and a questionnaire regarding MCUG-routine completed by six Departments of Radiology.
Results: The literature shows that proper information and preparation of both child and parents, and the use of distraction-techniques during the MCUG, can lessen the children s distress and increase their cooperation in connection with the examination. The use of sedation makes the MCUG less distressing for the child, withvery few side-effects and no negative effect for outcome of the examination. All the hospitals send written information, but only in Norwegian, to the patients/parents before the MCUG. The hospitals reported use of different kinds of distraction-techniques. Sedation with midazolam was used in all the hospitals, but the frequency varied from 5-75 % of the examined children.
Conclusion: The MCUG-routines at the Norwegian University Hospitals are to varying extent in accordance with empirical recommendations, and there are still improvements to be made regarding written and oral information, distraction-techniques and sedation.