Introduction: Peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of chemotherapy treatment that affects about 1/3 of all patients who undergo chemotherapy. It can give functional disability and often leads to dose reduction or cessation of the treatment.Method: By reviewing current literature and trying to find the most updated information on important topics such as pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical aspects, evaluation, treatment and prognostics.Results: Currently available research results show an increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of this important condition. Risk factors are being researched in an attempt to recognize which patients will develop CIPN so that the treatment can be custom made for them. The most interesting research is on genetic polymorphisms, where future results may lead to identification of high risk patients based on their genotype. There are no universally accepted tools for diagnostics and for grading the severity of the condition. This is problematic for both the patients and the practitioners. There is a need for more research on preventive and symptomatic treatment of CIPN. Several agents for preventing CIPN have been identified but they need to be better researched and validated before they are implemented. The prognosis is in general relatively good for most patients except those treated with Cisplatin.Conclusions: More research is needed in all aspects of this condition. The best way of preventing severe CIPN is neurological monitoring and dose adjustment or cessation of the agent in use. Foremost, the patients’ well-being needs to be taken seriously and the patients need to be given the opportunity to tell about their symptoms.