HIV is an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The question of finding the optimal time for initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been discussed since the first drugs appeared in the 1980es. This study aims to investigate the association between when to initiate antiretroviral therapy on HIV positive adults and the impact on mortality and morbidity at the present time. I have found the data for this article using different sources of information: The current guidelines; the homepage of Clinical Care Options and this year’s CROI conference. The newest guidelines have taken a more aggressive stance, especially with respect to the CD4-count, concerning the timing of initiation of ART. My results support this approach, and the newest literature leans towards starting even sooner. However, this choice is not without complications, and other things, like the question of adherence and adverse effects of the medication, also have to be taken into account in each individual case. All in all the advantages of starting early with concern to the CD4-count seems to outweigh the disadvantages of postponing initiation of anti-retroviral therapy.