Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), such as cyclosporine A, have been known tonegatively affect kidney function and the cardiovascular risk profile in kidneytransplant recipients. Most recent trials on immunosuppressive therapy in thisgroup of patients involve a calcineurin inhibitor in some form. While CNIs havemarkedly improved short term graft survival, the potential disadvantages of longterm CNI use compared to CNI-free regimens have been less studied.The object of this study was to present and compare data on long term kidneyfunction, serum cholesterol, blood pressure and number of antihypertensive drugsused among kidney transplant recipients whose immunosuppressive regimen includedcyclosporine A, azathioprine and prednisolone, compared to recipients who receivedazathioprine and prednisolone only.214 cyclosporine A treated patients (Group A) were matched with a group of 117historical controls (Group B) that had been treated conventionally withoutcyclosporine A. The groups were matched with respect to age at transplant, gender,source of graft and time from transplant to follow-up.At an average of 6 years post-transplant, serum creatinine levels were significantlyhigher in Group A (153 vs 127 umol/l, p<0.005). The impact of cyclosporine A onblood pressure and cholesterol level could not be well elucidated, mainly due tostudy limitations associated with using historical controls. Two important factorsfor cardiovascular risk profile and graft outcome, nephrectomy of native kidneys andHLA-DR mismatch, were not available for analysis. In conclusion, the use ofcyclosporine A was associated with a poorer kidney function compared to conventionalimmunosuppressive treatment of kidney transplant recipients.