Falls and fractures are common in older people, and are closely related as most fracture are due to falls. Vitamin D deficiency causes osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteomalacia, and in the last decade, implications of insufficiency have interested many researchers. Research has shown conflicting results regarding the effect of vitamin D. Intake of only vitamin D has shown small or no effect , whereas in combination with calcium it has been reported significant reduction of falls and fractures. This text is based on systematic search for Meta-analyses, Randomised Controlled Trials and Review Articles, and the overall impression is that vitamin D and calcium supplements can prevent fractures and reduce numbers of fall. Dosages vary, but D-vitamin intake of a minimum of 700-1000 IU and 1200 mg of calcium per day has shown to be most effective both in terms of structure of bone mass and muscle coordination. Duration of treatment should span a minimum of six months. Results suggest that certain subgroups achieve the greatest effect.