AbstractBackground: This is a study of literature about bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV is a common condition among women and untreated it can lead to a number of serious problems. The current treatment of BV is antibiotics, but recurrence is very common. The primary objective of this paper is to look at possible causes for recurrence of BV and to find new research concerning treatment. Methods: To search for reviews and articles of this topic in different databases with focus on publications over the last decade. The articles and reviews were in addition to year of publication also selected by relevance by reading headings and abstracts. Results: It is well known that BV is correlated to the bacterial flora of vagina and to a shift from lactobacilli-dominance to anaerobic flora taking over and causing the malodorous condition. BV is not considered an STD, but correlation to different sexual practices has been shown in a number of studies. This might be due to transmission of biofilms. Current treatment is antibiotics. Due to adverse effects of antibiotics and a possibility for development of drug resistance, research is still going on for other methods to treat this condition. Probiotics might be a good additional way to treat and prevent BV. Conclusion: There is still need for more research concerning the etiology of BV to understand the condition better than today. The discovery of biofilms might provide new information. Some new studies show effect of probiotics as additional treatment to antibiotics for BV.