The Group B Streptococcus is still the leading cause of infections in newborns. There is effective treatment available, but no global consensus exists on how to reach those women who will benefit from intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. As a result, several countries have developed national guidelines on how to prevent GBS-disease. USA, Canada and many countries in Europe(Spain, Belgium, Italy) have chosen a universal screening strategy. This means screening of every pregnant woman in gestational week 35-37 and antibiotic treatment of those with GBS colonization. This strategy differs from the one used in Norway as well as in the UK, where the approach is to treat pregnant women based on risk factors associated with GBS-disease, without any screening. In this paper we discuss the different views, without making any conclusions which alternative is best. In order to look into the different arguments, we review several articles with different screening-strategies.In our material the main argument for pregnancy screening is the clear observed reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with GBS-disease. However, this approach will lead to excessive use of antibiotics, and the subsequent risk of serious antibiotic anaphylaxis and development of antibiotic resistance. At present there is lack of good randomized controlled trials where screening- versus risk based strategies are compared. Therefore no valid conclusions can be made from an evidence based view. However, before development and introduction of a vaccine, there may never be one universal strategy that every country will benefit from.