AbstractBackground; Our study was performed in Moshi, Tanzania in November 2005. Our aim was to find the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women and their children, etiological factors and consequences as parity, HIV-infection and birth weight. We also wanted to learn about the local routines and possibilities for diagnostic procedures. Another aim was to identify any correlation between the haemoglobin values of the mother and child pair, that is whether the prevalence of anaemic children was higher if the mothers were anaemic. Other studies have given diverging conclusions (1, 5, 4). Method; We visited two primary health care centres for mother-and-child, one in Majengo and one in Pasua district. We looked through nearly 3000 paper journals, and recorded several different data to compare and work with. Out of these, 271 met our criterias for inclusion.Results; 30 mothers were HIV+. The average haemoglobin-values of the mothers, in 36 gestational week, were; 109,03 g/L, of children 101,18 g/L. The prevalence of anaemia (WHO definition Hb< 110 g/L) among the mothers was 141 out of 271 (52 %). The prevalence of anaemia among the children, 2-4 months old, was 157 out of 271 (57,9 %). We found a slight tendency to differences in Hb of the mothers between the two clinics (p = 0,10). We believe this might be explained by socioeconomic factors. We found no significant difference of Hb values between the HIV + and HIV ¨C women. The pregnant women in this study had in average 1,11 children , this pregnancy not included. We found no significant correlation between parity and Hb. The average birth weight was 3,16 kg. There was a significant correlation between the Hb in the child and the birth weight (p= 0,03). For 1 unit increase in Hb (g/L) the weight increase was 0,004 kg. We found no significant correlation between Hb in mother and child. Conclusion; Our conclusion is that the prevalence of anaemia is high, affecting half of the mothers. Even so, only 8 out of the 141 (6%) anaemic mothers had severe anaemia, Hb ¡Ü 70 g/L. Whether the lack of correlation between Hb in mother and child is representative or not, might have been better explored by additional ferritin measurements. There is correlation between haemoglobin of children, measured at 3 months of age, and birth weight. Local differences in socioeconomic status may influence the level of haemoglobin in the population, and ought to be taken into consideration. It¡¯s difficult to get satisfactory standardization of routines and measurements in small clinics. More research is needed in the area.