Background: This study aimed to look for patterns of infections in children born of HIV positive versus negative mothers in Moshi, Tanzania. Methodology: In the study, 109 women and children were included. 82 were HIV negative and 27 were positive. Information on socioeconomic background and birth data was collected. The children were followed from birth to 1 year of age by questions to the mother and physical examination. Children with HIV positive mothers were also tested for HIV at 12 and 18 months.Results: The women had low socioeconomic status irrespective of HIV status; income was generally 15 – 30 000 TZS (13 – 26 USD) and the women had few possessions. Most women had 7 years of education. HIV positives were somewhat older (p=0,040) and had more children (p=0,040) than negatives. They were more often Christian than Muslim (p < 0,0005). Children born from HIV positive mothers did not appear to have higher prevalence of infections in the first year of life, although for some symptoms there was a statistical significant difference. These were cough (p=0,002), rash (p=0,01) and any illness episode (p=0,004) at 3 months, as well as ear discharge at 9 months (p=0,039).Discussion: The number of HIV positive children in this study was too small for general conclusions to be drawn. The study did not show that children born from HIV positive mothers are more ill in the first year of life than other children. Other measures are needed to evaluate children who acquire HIV from their mothers.