Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition that affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. The goal of this paper is to review disease mechanisms, how endometriosis may affect fertility as well as how to treat endometriosis-associated infertility. This paper is a review of English literature after searching databases such as Cochrane, Pubmed and research papers recommended by my supervisor. It is generally accepted that endometriosis affects fertility in a negative way, but how this happens remains unclear and more research is needed. Artificial reproductive techniques give good opportunities to treat endometriosis-associated infertility.