Premature ovarian failure in young females due to cancer therapy; challenges and options in terms of fertility preservation.Anne Lill Høeg and Kristian WennevoldAbstract:Background: It has become more and more important to address the topic of fertility preservation in young females due to drastic improvement in treatment of childhood cancer. About 75-80% of all children and adolescents recovered from cancer are still alive five years after the time of diagnosis.Objective: The aim of this literature study is to create an overview of common malignant diseases in children and adolescents up to 15 years of age, treatment of the diseases and adequate strategies to preserve fertility in these patients. The study also points out the different challenges in the area and where there is need of improvement concerning the different procedures.Methods: The study is based on relevant literature on the subject using PubMed databases, oncolex, Nordic Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO), The Norwegian Cancer Register, other relevant literature published and Google searches.Conclusion: Despite several techniques offered for females in need of fertility preservation, few techniques are available for prepubertal females. More research is needed in order to succeed in In vitro maturation of oocytes, and thus avoid the risk of reimplantation of malignant cells. The implementation of new techniques requires updated guidelines considering who to be offered the technique, depending on both the diagnosis and other risk factors such as the age of the patient and the prognosis of the disease.