An increasing proportion of the general population can be classified as having the metabolic syndrome, consisting of abdominal obesity, hypertension, elevated glucose and dyslipidemia. Inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis, and the metabolic syndrome is considered to be associated with a pro-inflammatory state. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the impact of inflammation and atherosclerosis in the metabolic syndrome, and potential effects of life-style interventions.
We found that in elderly men with metabolic syndrome, inflammatory markers and interleukin-18 in particular were strong predictors of acute cardiovascular events. Also arterial stiffness was independently associated with interleukin-18 and components of the metabolic syndrome.
Furthermore, exercise, diet and omega-3 fatty acid intervention reduced circulating levels of interleukin-18, and the reduction was associated with improvement of the metabolic syndrome. The results from our studies indicate that inflammatory markers are closely associated with atherosclerosis in the metabolic syndrome, and that the protective effects of life style interventions might partly be due to reduced inflammation.
List of papers
I. Trøseid M, Lappegård KT, Claudi T, Damås JK, Mørkrid L, Brendberg R, Mollnes TE. Exercise reduces plasma levels of the chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8 in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 349-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.ehj.2003.12.006
II. Trøseid M, Seljeflot I, Hjerkinn EM, Arnesen H. Interleukin-18 is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events in elderly men with the metabolic syndrome: Synergistic effect of inflammation and hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 486-92. DOI: 10.2337/dc08-1710
III. Trøseid M, Lappegård KT, Mollnes TE, Arnesen H, Seljeflot I. The effect of exercise on serum levels of interleukin-18 and components of the metabolic syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2009; 7: 579-84. DOI: 10.1089/met.2009.0003
IV. Trøseid M, Arnesen H, Hjerkinn EM, Seljeflot I. Serum levels of interleukin-18 are reduced by diet and n-3 fatty acid intervention in elderly high-risk men. Metabolism 2009; 58: 1543-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.04.031
V. Trøseid M, Seljeflot I, Weiss TW, Klemsdal TO, Hjerkinn EM, Arnesen H. Arterial stiffness is independently associated with interleukin-18 and components of the metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis 2009; Sep 25. E-pub. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.09.028