The goal of this thesis is to examine the presence of economic integration in the energy sectors of Iraq and Iran after the invasion in 2003. I argue that the absence of Saddam in combination with an Iraqi energy sector in dire need of reconstruction has provided for an opportunity for closer cooperation between the countries. I approach this issue through identifying drivers and obstacles to integration, and separate between inherent and contingent factors. This classification helps shed light on why establishing economic integration is hard, but nonetheless happens between the countries. I argue that the degree of cooperation achieved is dependent upon changes in the contingent factors, and the interaction between the inherent and contingent factors. Together the contingent and inherent factors form the window of opportunity for economic integration between Iraq and Iran.