SUMMARYThis thesis is a study of the use of myths in perceptions about Israel and ”the Arabs” in Israeli political discourse in the United Nations (UN) from 1947 to 2000. The material for this thesis has been Israeli speeches and statements from selected years during this period. The theoretical basis for the analysis of the Israeli use of myths and discourse has been theories of nationalism, Zionism and collective memory. The methodological tools used are Ronald Barthes’ definition of “myth” and Michel Foucault’s discourse theory on the production of power and knowledge through discourse. The thesis’ material has been categorized into three periods forming the basis of a comparative analysis. The various periods span from 1947-1977, 1977-1992, and 1992-2000. This classification has been determined by changes in the Israeli political system as a consequence of internal and external factors. The fourth chapter discusses the use of myths and discourse related to the Jewish nation and Zionism, the territorial connection to Eretz Israel, the special status of Jerusalem in Jewish/Israeli identity, and Jews/Israeli as victims of Arab aggression and anti-Semitism. The fifth chapter discusses the use of myths and discourse related to Israel’s views on the Palestinian nation and the right to self determination, the Palestinian refugees and ”the Arabs” as friends or foes, with special focus on the neighboring countries Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. The myths and discourses have been analyzed in the frames of changes in the political landscape and Israel’s geo-political situation against the backdrop of a pronounced political change. In conclusion, there is an interaction between the use of myths and the political changes that took place between 1947 and 2000, and, consequently, the myth as a phenomenon appears in this way as a product of the politically determined (un)willingness. This thesis has shown that several factors influence the production and use of certain myths. When the use of myth and discourse changes according to internal and external factors, these changes are motivated by political considerations and decisions. For example, the form of the myth may change over time without a following change in the content of the myth, or a myth may appear frequently in some of the selected periods while being totally absent in others. Myths lay claim to being “true” by repetition and re-production. A comparative discourse analysis shows that the myth may change form, be revealed, or is not a part of the existing discourse. Foucault’s theory on how discourse constructs, defines and produces knowledge, how knowledge can be talked about, and how knowledge in combination with power tries to make itself ”true”, makes visible the importance of myth producers for the presentation and use of myth and discourse.