The Arab Republic of Egypt displays Human Rights problems not uncommon those generally found in the Middle East. Although having a growing economy, social development in general is hindered by lack of education, corruption, poverty and political status quo. The office of the president and the executive branch has extensive powers which frequently uses methods to curb serious political opposition such as, but not limited to, arrests and false charges and by denying the registration of new parties. Political rights necessary for democratic governance such as freedom of speech and freedom of assembly are eroded by a prolonged period of state of emergency. In this environment, domestic and international NGOs are working to treat complaints of individual Human Rights abuses, publish reports, issues statements and attempts to put the Human Rights situation on the national and international agenda.
Thomas Rises Spiral Theory on the work of the transnational Human Rights movement outlines five phases through which the state will go in its gradual acceptance of Human Rights norms. From repression, denial, tactical concessions, to prescriptive status and finally rule consistent behavior. Egypt displays several of the symptoms for being in the third phase -- namely having made tactical concessions such as the establishment of the National Council for Human Rights. However, the authorities still repress the Muslim Brotherhood, claiming they are dangerous fundamentalists, and justifying the repression with a reference to the “war on terror” by the US and its Western allies. Many countries, although being dissatisfied with the Human Rights situation in Egypt - refrains from public criticism because Egypt is viewed as moderate and friendly toward the west, and, as one scholar put it “still the best shot for Democracy in the Middle east”.