It is generally recognized that the environment merits protection even in times of war. In spite the fact that it even merits protection for its own sake, International Humanitarian Law is only concerned with the anthropocentric basis of the environmental protection. History has shown that the provisions that are supposed to directly protect the environment have failed to do so. Because protection that exists today leaves much to be desired, the aim of this thesis is to identify the basic principles of IHL and apply them to the protection of the environment. The case of Fallujah is used as an example that tell the story on how the conduct of war scars the fragile environment and how it seems that the long-term effects on the environment may not be included in the assessment of collateral damage. In a globalized society, such damage may very well affect us all.