AbstractA growing amount of research has investigated false memory creation in various populations and in relation to a number of variables, such as personality traits and mental health variables.These studies have revealed inconsistent results, indicating that further research is needed. Apparently, no studies have to this date explored false memory creation in prison inmates. This is a rather distinct group considering the environment in which they live and their probably rather idiosyncratic histories. Gaining knowledge about this group’s memory performances would be both interesting and fruitful for theoretical and practical reasons. In the present study, false recognition of the critical lure in the DRM paradigm was examined among 24 inmates in a Norwegian prison and preventive institution. In addition, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the Creative Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ) were completed by theparticipants. The group of inmates was compared with 24 control participants with regards to false recognition and the self-report measures. Furthermore, the relationship between false memories of the critical lure and depression, anxiety, dissociation, and fantasy proneness were addressed. The results revealed that the control participants falsely recognized significantly more of the critical lures than the group of inmates. Moreover, the inmates scored significantly higher on depression, dissociation, and fantasy proneness compared to the control group. With regards to the relationship between false memories of the critical lure andthe self-report measures, no significant correlations were found. The present findings are discussed in relation to previous studies addressing depression, anxiety, dissociation, and fantasy proneness in prison inmates. Furthermore, they are discussed in relation to previous studies investigating the relationship between false memory creation and these individual differences. Finally, implications for future research are discussed.