This thesis is a comparative study on learning and interaction in regional systems of innovation within the bio energy for heating purposes industry at Hadeland and Buskerud. The systemic perspective on innovation has been employed as an analytical framework in order to grasp all aspects of initiatives and activities in its social, institutional and cultural context. The context is to a certain degree path dependent and therefore regional-specific. The comparative approach enables the identification of strengths and weaknesses in the two regional efforts. Whereas learning and interaction were characterized by co-shaping and an including bottom-up strategy in Buskerud, there were traces of a non-relational top-down attitude in the Hadeland region. The failure of an abrupt creation of an industry cluster indicate that the path creation effort at Hadeland where largely path dependent while the to a great extent successful path creation almost “from scratch” in Buskerud proved not to be. Although there has been former, successful attempts of bio energy efforts in the Hadeland region, inner rivalry and the absence of outside-regional relationships at Hadeland seems to be the main obstacles to new and continued activity in the region. The lack of system openness may have contributed to a diminishing intensity of activity and initiatives in general. There is also a need to reduce uncertainty in order to stabilize the institutional set-up.In Buskerud the public project functions as a hub for relational know-who and technological know-how. There is thus a more pro-relational-friendly climate within the region. There are also established several outside-regional relationships that might be beneficial to new and continued activity. Nevertheless, the growing tendency of division of actors according to size and significance due to fierce competition and decreasing returns may hamper the established system of openness. Another hindrance might be the lack of a downstream perspective.