Science and technology can play a key role in contributing to the sustainable development of developing countries. However, research has failed to relieve the problems of Southern communities and to respond to the needs of its poor. There is the need to develop holistic and contextualised science and technology policies in the South, which respond to the social, cultural, political and economic environment and reflect the demands and priorities of variousstakeholders. Recognising the inequalities present in developing countries, this thesis addresses the need to ensure the articulation and inclusion of the needs of poor in S&T policy making. The thesis explores how contemporary conceptualisation of knowledge productionmay contribute to more context-sensitive S&T policy making in developing countries and strengthen its relevance towards meeting the needs of the poor. It argues for the need for flexible and networked approaches to knowledge production, and for recognition of the way social processes include and exclude the articulation of needs.